Changing URL of a page is something you should only do as a last resort. Think carefully before making a post live. If that is too late then you now have to track down any links to that page, with internally or externally and where possible get them changed as well. The 301 redirect is only really there once you have run out of ways to get all the links changed and some webmasters refuse or ignore you.
If you have caught your error early and there are no external links to the page then you can just change it and over time google will forget the old page.
There is no requirement to use the URL inspection to inform them of the new page, they will find it anyway when crawling your site assuming you have built internal links to the page. I agree if you want to speed up this process then it won't harm your site by submitting it but don't expect magic results by doing so.
The URL though is a tiny part of SEO, changing the URL to suit your current thinking I doubt will have any major effect. You will also need to change the page title and content really. But then if it's all different then really it should be a new page surely.